JAVA EXAMPLE PROGRAMS

JAVA EXAMPLE PROGRAMS

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Program: Implement Binary Search Tree (BST) pre-order traversal (depth first).


Description:

For a binary tree to be a binary search tree (BST), the data of all the nodes in the left sub-tree of the root node should be less than or equals to the data of the root. The data of all the nodes in the right subtree of the root node should be greater than the data of the root. This example shows the implementation of a binary search tree pre-order traversal (depth first).

What is pre-order traversal (depth first)?

Tree traversal means we visiting all nodes in the tree, visiting means either of accessing node data or processing node data. Traversal can be specified by the order of visiting 3 nodes, ie current node, left subtree and right subtree. In pre-order traversal, first we visit the current node, then left subtree and then right subtree. In our current example we use recursive approach to implement pre-order traversal.

Binary Search Tree (pre-order traversal)

Pre-order: F, B, A, D, C, E, G, I, H.

Here is an example picture of binary search tree (BST) for our example code:

Binary Search Tree

Here is the steps to implement pre-order traversal:

  1. Start with root node.
  2. Check if the current node is empty / null.
  3. Display the data part of the root (or current node).
  4. Traverse the left subtree by recursively calling the pre-order function.
  5. Traverse the right subtree by recursively calling the pre-order function.


BstNode
package com.java2novice.ds;

public class BstNode {

	private BstNode left;
	private BstNode right;
	private Integer data;

	public BstNode(Integer data) {
		this.data = data;
	}

	public BstNode getLeft() {
		return left;
	}
	public void setLeft(BstNode left) {
		this.left = left;
	}
	public BstNode getRight() {
		return right;
	}
	public void setRight(BstNode right) {
		this.right = right;
	}

	public Integer getData() {
		return data;
	}
}

BinarySearchTreeImpl
package com.java2novice.ds;

import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Queue;

public class BinarySearchTreeImpl {

	private BstNode root;

	public boolean isEmpty() {

		return (this.root == null);
	}

	public void insert(Integer data) {

		System.out.print("[input: "+data+"]");
		if(root == null) {
			this.root = new BstNode(data);
			System.out.println(" -> inserted: "+data);
			return;
		}

		insertNode(this.root, data);
		System.out.print(" -> inserted: "+data);
		System.out.println();
	}

	private BstNode insertNode(BstNode root, Integer data) {

		BstNode tmpNode = null;
		System.out.print(" ->"+root.getData());
		if(root.getData() >= data) {
			System.out.print(" [L]");
			if(root.getLeft() == null) {
				root.setLeft(new BstNode(data));
				return root.getLeft();
			} else {
				tmpNode = root.getLeft();
			}
		} else {
			System.out.print(" [R]");
			if(root.getRight() == null) {
				root.setRight(new BstNode(data));
				return root.getRight();
			} else {
				tmpNode = root.getRight();
			}
		}

		return insertNode(tmpNode, data);
	}

	public void preOrderTraversal() {
		doPreOrder(this.root);
	}

	private void doPreOrder(BstNode root) {

		if(root == null) return;
		System.out.print(root.getData()+" ");
		doPreOrder(root.getLeft());
		doPreOrder(root.getRight());
	}

	public static void main(String a[]) {

		BinarySearchTreeImpl bst = new BinarySearchTreeImpl();
		bst.insert(8);
		bst.insert(10);
		bst.insert(14);
		bst.insert(3);
		bst.insert(6);
		bst.insert(7);
		bst.insert(1);
		bst.insert(4);
		bst.insert(13);
		System.out.println("\n-------------------");
		System.out.println("Pre Order Traversal");
		bst.preOrderTraversal();
	}
}

Output:
[input: 8] -> inserted: 8
[input: 10] ->8 [R] -> inserted: 10
[input: 14] ->8 [R] ->10 [R] -> inserted: 14
[input: 3] ->8 [L] -> inserted: 3
[input: 6] ->8 [L] ->3 [R] -> inserted: 6
[input: 7] ->8 [L] ->3 [R] ->6 [R] -> inserted: 7
[input: 1] ->8 [L] ->3 [L] -> inserted: 1
[input: 4] ->8 [L] ->3 [R] ->6 [L] -> inserted: 4
[input: 13] ->8 [R] ->10 [R] ->14 [L] -> inserted: 13
-------------------
Pre Order Traversal
8 3 1 6 4 7 10 14 13
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Knowledge Centre
What is System.out in Java
In System.out, out is an instance of PrintStream. It is a static member variable in System class. This is called standard output stream, connected to console.
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About Author

I'm Nataraja Gootooru, programmer by profession and passionate about technologies. All examples given here are as simple as possible to help beginners. The source code is compiled and tested in my dev environment.

If you come across any mistakes or bugs, please email me to [email protected].

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