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Java Nested (Inner) Classes Examples

  • If a class is declared within another class or interface is called nested class.
  • Types of nested classes are as given below:
  • Static Member Classes: It is defined as static member in a class or an interface.
  • Non-static Member Classes: It is defined as instance members of another classes.
  • Local Classes: It is defined in a block, like inside a method body or a local block.
  • Anonymous Classes: It can be defined as expressions and instantiated on the fly.

Java Nested Classes Sample Code Examples

  1. How to initialise or call a static member class?
  2. How to implement a static member interface?
  3. How to access top level class variables from static member classes?
  4. Give an example of basic non-static member class.
  5. How to initialise non-static member (local class) class?
Knowledge Centre
ServletOuptputStream Vs PrintWriter
ServletOutputStream: ServletResponse.getOutputStream() returns a ServletOutputStream suitable for writing binary data in the response. The servlet container does not encode the binary data, it sends the raw data as it is.

PrintWriter: ServletResponse.getWriter() returns PrintWriter object which sends character text to the client. The PrintWriter uses the character encoding returned by getCharacterEncoding(). If the response's character encoding has not been specified then it does default character encoding.
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About Author

I'm Nataraja Gootooru, programmer by profession and passionate about technologies. All examples given here are as simple as possible to help beginners. The source code is compiled and tested in my dev environment.

If you come across any mistakes or bugs, please email me to [email protected].

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Reference: Java™ Platform Standard Ed. 7 - API Specification | Java™ Platform Standard Ed. 8 - API Specification | Java is registered trademark of Oracle.
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